Castle was the last and largest of Edward I's castles, begun in 1295 and never finished. The plans for its Great Hall indicate that it would have been twice its present height if it had been completed. Its ingenious and perfectly symmetrical walls-within-walls design was state of the art for the late 13th century. Built into its plan were no less than four successive lines of fortifications and 14 separate major obstacles that any attacker would have had to overcome, together with hundreds of cleverly sited arrow slits and deadly “murder holes” to defend entrances. The view from the entrance across the moat is simply beautiful and often enhanced by swimming swans or geese. This outstanding fortress is a World Heritage listed site.

julian200Julian has written articles on Middle Eastern and European architecture for the US magazine Skipping Stones. He has written travel articles that were published in The Toronto Globe and Mail, Fate Magazine, National Catholic Register, and Northwest Travel. Julian has also written articles for the In The Know Traveler, Go Nomad, InTravelmag, and Go World Travel websites. He has also taken many photographs that have appeared in travel guides by National Geographic, Thomas Cook and The Rough Guides. Examples of his work can be found at